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Professional Services

Description of Services:
Editing, Proofreading, Copyediting, General Editing, Substantive Editing, Fact Checking, Research, Consultation/Critique, Ghost Writing, Writing

Editing: �Editing� is a term loosely used as a catch word to describe the process of preparing a manuscript for publication. Editors may actually go through a series of steps (or types of editing) to accomplish this. The list below briefly describes the different types of editing to help you in selecting the services you need: proofreading, copyediting, general editing, and substantive editing. Often, it is difficult to draw the line between editing and copyediting because editing involves a number of the elements of copyediting. The amount of time required to edit a manuscript depends on how it has been prepared and on the audience for which it is intended.

Proofreading:
Proofreading is the final editing process for a manuscript. Before this stage, the manuscript has usually gone through a thorough editing process. The proofreader looks closely for errors in spelling, punctuation, spacing, page numbers, etc. Word processing programs cannot identify an incorrect word if it is spelled correctly, e.g. �in� was typed instead of �an.�

Copyediting:
Copyediting is concerned with the mechanics of the manuscript: capitalization, spelling, hyphenation, grammar, syntax, word usage, and accuracy. During this process, the editor will check for uniformity of style for headings, subheadings, tables, etc. All references to tables, figures, pictures, maps, etc. will be check for accuracy. Notes, citations, bibliographies and reference lists, and the content of tables may also be part of the process. This process will not look at comprehension or organization (see Substantive editing).

General Editing:
This is the process that most people think about when they think about editing. It looks at both the content and the mechanics (copyediting) in one process. This works best for shorter manuscripts (less than 100 pages) and promotional materials (e.g. brochures, press releases, meeting programs).

Substantive editing:
Substantive editing refers to a comprehensive evaluation of a manuscript. The editor looks at the organization and presentation. It may involve rephrasing or reorganizing of a manuscript as well as mechanical issues such as syntax. An author�s own style is respected during this process; however the editor may make suggestions to the author to improve readability. For manuscripts being submitted to journals, etc., the editor will also insure that the manuscript follows the established style of that periodical.